WMAP 
First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations:

WMAP Firstyear Paper Figures, Spergel, et al.  
Individual figures are provided for use in talks. Proper display of PNG transparency in PowerPoint requires saving files to your computer before Inserting them. Please acknowledge the WMAP Science Team when using these images. Image Credit: NASA / WMAP Science Team 

Fig. 1 Comparison of the bestfit powerlaw ΛCDM model to the WMAP temperature angular power spectrum. The gray dots are the unbinned data. 
PNG (17 kb  849x1036 pixels) PNG (40 kb  1698x2072 pixels) EPS (141 kb) 

Fig. 2 Comparison of the bestfit powerlaw ΛCDM model to the WMAP temperature angular power spectrum. 
PNG (23 kb  1395x2048 pixels) PNG (48 kb  2791x4096 pixels) EPS (22 kb) 

Fig. 3 Contribution to 2 ln L per multipole binned at Δl = 15. The excess Χ^{2} comes primarily from three regions, one around l ~ 120, one around l ~ 200, and the other around l ~ 340. 
PNG (23 kb  1479x2048 pixels) PNG (61 kb  2958x4096 pixels) EPS (17 kb) 

Fig. 4 Likelihood function of the WMAP TT+TE data as a function of the basic parameters in the powerlaw ΛCDM WMAP model (Ω_{b}h^{2}, Ω_{m}h^{2}, h, A, n_{s} and τ.) The points are the binned marginalized likelihood from the Markov chain, and the solid curve is an Edgeworth expansion of the Markov chain’s points. The marginalized likelihood function is nearly Gaussian for all of the parameters except for τ. The dashed lines show the maximumlikelihood values of the global sixdimensional fit. Since the peak in the likelihood, x_{ML}, is not the same as the expectation value of the likelihood function, (χ), the dashed line does not lie at the center of the projected likelihood. 
PNG (30 kb  1055x2048 pixels) PNG (70 kb  2110x4096 pixels) EPS (44 kb) 

Fig. 5 Spectral index constraints. Left: n_{s}τ degeneracy in the WMAP data for a powerlaw ΛCDM model. The TE observations constrain the value of τ and the shape of the C_{one}^{TT} spectrum constrain a combination of n_{s} and τ. Right: n_{s}Ω_{b}h^{2} degeneracy. The shaded regions show the joint 1 and 2 σ confidence regions. 
PNG (29 kb  851x2048 pixels) PNG (39 kb  1701x4096 pixels) EPS (13 kb) 

Fig. 6 Left: Comparison of the bestfit ΛCDM model of § 3 based on WMAP data only to the 2dFGRS power spectrum (Percival et al. 2001). The bias parameter for the bestfit powerlaw ΛCDM model is 1.0, corresponding to a bestfit value of β = 0.45. Right: Comparison of the bestfit powerlaw ΛCDM model of § 3 to the power spectrum at z = 3 inferred from the Lyα forest data. The data points have been scaled downward by 20%, which is consistent with the 1 σ calibration uncertainty (Croft et al. 2002). 
PNG (15 kb  749x2048 pixels) PNG (36 kb  1498x4096 pixels) EPS (15 kb) 

Fig. 7 Left: Fraction of mass in bound objects as a function of redshift. The black lines show the mass in collapsed objects with mass greater than M^{HRL}(z), the effective Jeans mass in the absence of H_{2} cooling for our bestfit PL ΛCDM model (thin lines are for the fit to WMAP only, and thick lines are for the fit to all data sets). The heavy line uses the bestfit parameters based on all data (which has a lower σ_{8}), and the light line uses the bestfit parameters based on fitting to the WMAP data only. The dashed lines show the mass in collapsed objects with masses greater than the Jeans mass assuming that the minimum mass is 10^{6} M_{sun}. More objects form if the minimum mass is lower. Right: Ionization fraction as a function of redshift. The solid line shows ionization fraction for the bestfit PL ΛCDM model if we assume that H_{2} cooling is suppressed by photo destruction of H_{2}. This figure suggests that H_{2} cooling may be necessary for enough objects to form early enough to be consistent with the WMAP detection. The heavy line is for the bestfit parameters for all data sets, and the light line is for the bestfit parameters for the WMAP only fit. The dashed lines assume that the objects with masses greater than 10^{6} M_{sun} can form stars. The gray band shows the 68% likelihood region for z_{r} based on the assumption of instantaneous complete reionization (Kogut et al. 2003). 
PNG (19 kb  986x2048 pixels) PNG (51 kb  1971x4096 pixels) EPS (14 kb) 

Fig. 8 Marginalized likelihood for various cosmological parameters in the running spectral index model for our analysis of the combined WMAP, CBI, ACBAR, 2dFGRS, and Lyα data sets. The dashed lines show the maximumlikelihood values of the global sevendimensional fit. 
PNG (57 kb  1537x2048 pixels) PNG (124 kb  3074x4096 pixels) EPS (52 kb) 

Fig. 9 Left: The shaded region in the figure shows the 1 σ contours for the amplitude of the power spectrum as a function of scale for the running spectral index model fit to all data sets. The dotted lines bracket the 2 σ region for this model. The dashed line is the bestfit power spectrum for the powerlaw ΛCDM model. Right: The shaded region in the figure shows the 1 σ contours for the amplitude of the amplitude of mass fluctuations, Δ^{2}(k) = k^{3}P(k)/(2π^{2}), as a function of scale for the running spectral index model fit to all data sets. The dotted lines bracket the 2 σ region for this model. The dashed line is the best fit for the powerlaw ΛCDM model. 
PNG (25 kb  936x2048 pixels) PNG (62 kb  1873x4096 pixels) EPS (25 kb) 

Fig. 10 Left: Fraction of the universe in bound objects with mass greater than M^{HRL} (dashed line), M^{j} = 10^{6} M_{sun} (solid line), and Mf (dotted line) in a model with a running spectral index. The curves were computed for the 1 σ upper limit parameters for this model (see Fig. 9). These should be viewed as upper limits on the mass fraction in collapsed objects. Right: Ionization fraction as a function of redshift and is based on the assumptions described in ξ 4.7. As in the left panel, we use the 1 σ upper limit estimate of the power spectrum so that we obtain ‘‘ optimistic ’’ estimates of the reionization fraction. In the context of a running spectral index fit to the data, the WMAP detection of reionization appears to require that H^{2} cooling played an important role in early star formation. 
PNG (19 kb  1086x2048 pixels) PNG (49 kb  2171x4096 pixels) EPS (13 kb) 

Fig. 11 Constraints on dark energy properties. The upper left panel shows the marginalized maximumlikelihood surface for the WMAPext data alone and for a combination of the WMAPext+2dFGRS data sets. The solid lines in the figure show the 68% and 95% confidence ranges for the fit C supernova data from Perlmutter et al. (1999). In the upper right panel, we multiply the supernova likelihood function by the WMAPext+2dFGRS likelihood functions. The lower left panel shows the maximumlikelihood surface for h and w for theWMAPext data alone and for theWMAPext+2dFGRS data sets. The solid lines in the figures are the 68% and 95% confidence limits on H_{0} from the HST Key Project, where we add the systematic and statistical errors in quadrature. In the lower right panel, we multiply the likelihood function for the WMAPext+2dFGRS data by the likelihood surface for the HST data to determine the joint likelihood surface. The dark areas in these plots are the 68% likelihood regions, and the light areas are the 95% likelihood regions. 
PNG (34 kb  1365x2048 pixels) PNG (80 kb  2731x4096 pixels) EPS (31 kb) 

Fig. 12 Constraints on dark energy properties. The upper left panel shows the marginalized maximumlikelihood surface for the WMAPext data alone and for a combination of the WMAPext+2dFGRS data sets. The solid lines in the figure show the 68% and 95% confidence ranges for supernova data from Riess et al. (2001). In the upper right panel, we multiply the supernova likelihood function by the WMAPext+2dFGRS likelihood functions. The lower left panel shows the maximumlikelihood surface for h and w for the WMAPext data alone and for theWMAPext+2dFGRS data sets. The solid lines in the figures are the 68% and 95% confidence limits on H_{0} from the HST Key Project, where we add the systematic and statistical errors in quadrature. In the lower right panel, we multiply the likelihood function for the WMAPext+2dFGRS data by the likelihood surface for the HST data to determine the joint likelihood surface. The dark areas in these plots are the 68% likelihood regions, and the light areas are the 95% likelihood regions. The calculations for this figure assumed a prior that w > 1. 
PNG (33 kb  1365x2048 pixels) PNG (79 kb  2731x4096 pixels) EPS (22 kb) 

Fig. 13 Constraints on the geometry of the universe:Ω_{m}Ω_{Λ} plane. Twodimensional likelihood surface for various combinations of data: WMAP (upper left); WMAPext (upper right); WMAPext+HST Key Project (supernova data [Riess et al. 1998, 2001] are shown but not used in the likelihood in this part of the panel) (lower left);WMAPext+HST Key Project+supernova (lower right). 
PNG (30 kb  1460x2048 pixels) PNG (73 kb  2920x4096 pixels) EPS (28 kb) 

Fig. 14 Marginalized cumulative probability of Ω_{ν}h^{2} based on a fit to the WMAPext+2dFGRS data sets (dashed line) and the cumulative probability based on a fit to the WMAPext+2dFGRS+Lyα data sets (solid line). The vertical lines are the 95% confidence upper limits for each case (0.21 and 0.23 eV). 
PNG (22 kb  1495x2048 pixels) PNG (22 kb  1495x2048 pixels) EPS (31 kb) 

Fig. 15 Cumulative likelihood of the combination of the WMAPext+2dFGRS+Lyα data sets as a function of r, the tensor/scalar ratio. The three lines show the likelihood for no priors, for models with dn/d ln k< 0.005, and for models with n_{s} < 1. 
PNG (28 kb  1601x2048 pixels) PNG (66 kb  3165x4048 pixels) EPS (19 kb) 

Fig. 16 Angular correlation function of the bestfit ΛCDM model, toy finite universe model, and WMAP data on large angular scales. The data points are computed from the templatecleaned Vband WMAP using the Kp0 cut (Bennett et al. 2003c). 
PNG (30 kb  1992x2048 pixels) PNG (76 kb  3983x4096 pixels) EPS (13 kb) 

Fig. 17 TE power spectrum. Comparison of the data to the predicted TE power spectrum in our toy finite universe model and the ΛCDM model. Both models assume that τ = 0:17 and have identical cosmological parameters. This figure shows that the TE power spectrum contains additional information about the fluctuations at large angles. While the current data cannot distinguish between these models, future observations could detect the distinctive TE signature of the model. 
PNG (25 kb  1991x2048 pixels) PNG (63 kb  3982x4096 pixels) EPS (11 kb) 