WMAP 
SevenYear Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations:

WMAP Sevenyear Paper Figures, D. Larson, et al.  
Individual figures are provided for use in talks. Proper display of PNG transparency in PowerPoint requires saving files to your computer before Inserting them. Please acknowledge the WMAP Science Team when using these images. Image Credit: NASA / WMAP Science Team 

Fig.1 The 7year temperature (TT) power spectrum from WMAP. The third acoustic peak and the onset of the Silk damping tail are now well measured by WMAP. The curve is the ΛCDM model best fit to the 7year WMAP data: Ω_{b}h^{2}= 0.02270, Ω_{c}h^{2}= 0.1107, Ω_{Λ}= 0.738, τ= 0.086, n_{s}= 0.969, Δ^{2}_{R}= 2.38 × 109, and A_{SZ}= 0.52. The plotted errors include instrument noise, but not the small, correlated contribution due to beam and point source subtraction uncertainty. The gray band represents cosmic variance. A complete error treatment is incorporated in the WMAP likelihood code. The points are binned in progressively larger multipole bins with increasing l; the bin ranges are included in the 7year data release. 
PNG (23 kb  2048x1285 pixels) PNG (55 kb  4096x2570 pixels) EPS (36 kb) 

Fig.2 The highl TT spectrum measured by WMAP, showing the improvement with 7 years of data. The points with errors use the full data set while the boxes show the 5year results with the same binning. The TT measurement is improved by >30% in the vicinity of the third acoustic peak (at l ≈ 800), while the 2 bins from l = 1000–1200 are new with the 7year data analysis. 
PNG (22 kb  2048x1136 pixels) PNG (53 kb  4096x2272 pixels) EPS (41 kb) 

Fig.3 The 7year temperaturepolarization (TE) crosspower spectrum measured by WMAP. The second trough (TE<0) in the spectrum in the vicinity of l = 450 is now clearly detected. The green curve is the ΛCDM model best fit to the 7year WMAP data, as in Figure 1. The plotted errors depict the diagonal elements of the covariance matrix and include both cosmic variance and instrument noise. A complete error treatment is incorporated in the WMAP likelihood code. Note that the plotted spectrum is (l + 1)C_{l}^{TE} /(2π), and not l(l + 1)C_{l}^{TE} /(2π). 
PNG (20 kb  2048x1365 pixels) PNG (51 kb  4096x2731 pixels) EPS (28 kb) 

Fig.4 The TE and TB highl spectra measured by WMAP, showing the improvement with 7 years of data. The points with errors use the full data set while the boxes show the 5year results with the same binning. The spectra are greatly improved by the addition of Wband data. The nondetection of TB signal is expected; it provides a good check of systematic errors and foreground residuals, and can be also used to set limits on polarization rotation due to parityviolating effects (§2.4 and Komatsu et al. (2010)). 
PNG (32 kb  2048x2008 pixels) PNG (81 kb  4096x4016 pixels) EPS (39 kb) 

Fig.5 The 7year temperaturepolarization (TB) crosspower spectrum measured by WMAP. This spectrum is predicted to be zero in the basic ΛCDM model and the measured spectrum is consistent with zero. TB provides a useful null test for systematic errors and foreground residuals. Komatsu et al. (2010) use the TB and TE spectra to place an upper limit on polarization rotation due to parityviolating effects. The TB Χ^{2} for the null hypothesis (TB=0) is 851 for 777 degrees of freedom. The probability to exceed that amount is 3.2%, which is slightly low, but not unreasonably. Note that the plotted spectrum is (l + 1)C_{l}^{TB} /(2π), and not l(l + 1)C_{l}^{TB} /(2π). 
PNG (17 kb  2048x1371 pixels) PNG (45 kb  4096x2741 pixels) EPS (25 kb) 

Fig.6 Conditional likelihoods of l(l + 1)C_{l}^{EE} /(2π) for l = 2–7, computed with the WMAP likelihood code. The Ka, Q, and V bands contribute to the lowl polarized pixel likelihood. In each panel, the black curve is the conditional likelihood for a given multipole when all other multipoles are held fixed at the value of the bestfit ΛCDM model (indicated by the black diamonds). The red curve in each panel is the conditional likelihood when all other multipoles are held fixed at the maximum likelihood value of the spectrum, indicated by the red diamonds. The maximum likelihood spectra were determined by a numerical maximization of the WMAP likelihood code, for l = 2–10, for TT, TE, EE, and BB. Points with l > 10 were fixed at the bestfit ΛCDM value. 
PNG (37 kb  2048x2040 pixels) PNG (94 kb  4096x4080 pixels) EPS (55 kb) 

Fig.7 The relative Χ^{2} for a single bin of l(l + 1)C_{l}^{EE} /(2π) from l = 2–7, conditioned on the bestfit ΛCDM spectrum. For simplicity, we set C_{l}^{TE} = 0 for l = 2–7 for this evaluation, so that the constraint C_{l}^{TE} ≤ √C_{l}^{TT} C_{l}^{EE} will always be satisfied. The vertical red lines indicate where Δ_{Χ}^{2} = 1, 4, 9, and 16, corre sponding to 1, 2, 3, and 4 σ confidence limits on EE. The EE=0 point in this bin has Δ_{Χ}^{2} = 26.5; additionally, setting TE=0 in the 2–7 bin raises Χ^{2} by 3.5 relative to the bestfit ΛCDM TE spectrum. Thus the full change in Χ^{2} between the bestfit model and the EE=TE=0 model is 30, corresponding to a 5.5σ detection of EE power in this bin, with l(l + 1)C_{l}^{EE} /(2π) = 0.074^{+0.034}_{0.025} µK^{2} (68% CL). 
PNG (23 kb  2048x1480 pixels) PNG (59 kb  4096x2960 pixels) EPS (22 kb) 

Fig.8 Conditional likelihoods of l(l + 1)C_{l}^{BB} /(2π) for l = 2–7, computed with the WMAP likelihood code. The Ka, Q, and V bands contribute to the lowl polarized pixel likelihood. In each panel, the black curve is the conditional likelihood for a given multipole when all other multipoles are held fixed at the value of the bestfit ΛCDM model (effectively zero, except for gravitational lensing) as indicated by the black diamonds. The red curve in each panel is the conditional likelihood when all other multipoles are held fixed at the maximum likelihood value of the spectrum, indicated by the red diamonds. The maximum likelihood spectrum was determined as stated in the caption to Figure 6. 
PNG (34 kb  2048x2040 pixels) PNG (85 kb  4096x4080 pixels) EPS (53 kb) 

Fig.9 The relative Χ^{2} for a single bin of l(l+1)C_{l}^{BB} /(2π) from l = 27, conditioned on the bestfit ΛCDM spectrum. The vertical red lines indicate where Δ_{Χ}^{2} = 1, 4, 9, and 16, corresponding to 1, 2, 3, and 4 σ confidence limits on BB. We find an upper limit of l(l + 1)C_{l}^{BB} /(2π) < 0.055 µK^{2} (95% CL). 
PNG (22 kb  2048x1480 pixels) PNG (56 kb  4096x2960 pixels) EPS (21 kb) 

Fig.10 WMAP detects the highl EE power spectrum. The green curve is the bestfit ΛCDM model power spectrum, and the data are a combination of Q, V, and Wband data. In the multipole range 24 ≤ l ≤ 800, the detection is above 8σ. 
PNG (30 kb  2048x1284 pixels) PNG (72 kb  4096x2568 pixels) EPS (81 kb) 

Fig.11 Q − Wand V − Wband difference spectra for EE are consistent with zero, as expected. The green line is the ΛCDM EE spectrum, which should not match this data, but is plotted to illustrate the size of the nulltest error bars, compared to the detected signal. 
PNG (34 kb  2048x1508 pixels) PNG (79 kb  4096x3016 pixels) EPS (59 kb) 

Fig.12 The red line in this figure represents the percentage change in the C_{l}^{TT}spectrum, due to the change in RECFAST from version 1.4.2 to version 1.5, including additional physics of the hydrogen atom. 
PNG (16 kb 2048x1227 pixels) PNG (37 kb 4096x2454 pixels) EPS (20 kb) 

Fig.13 Gravitational wave constraints from the 7year WMAP data, expressed in terms of the tensortoscalar ratio, r. The red contours show the 68% and 95% confidence regions for r compared to each of the ΛCDM parameters using the 7year data. The blue contours are the corresponding 5year results. We do not detect gravitational waves with the new data; when we marginalize over the 6 ΛCDM parameters the 7year limit is r < 0.36 (95% CL), compared to the 5year limit of r < 0.43 (95% CL). Tighter limits apply when WMAP data are combined with H_{0} and BAO constraints (Komatsu et al. 2010). 
PNG (33 kb 2048x1284 pixels) PNG (74 kb 4096x2568 pixels) EPS (86 kb) 

Fig.14 The range of nonflat models consistent with the WMAP 7year data. The plotted points are drawn from the Markov chain (ΛCDM, with curvature, fit to WMAP data only); the color of each point indicates the Hubble constant for that element in the chain, as indicated in the legend. Due to the geometric degeneracy, CMB data alone do not strongly constrain closed models with Ω_{Λ}+Ω_{m} > 1, provided a low Hubble constant is tolerated, see Table 6. The dashed line parameterizes the geometric degeneracy in the 7year data: Ω_{k}= 0.2654 + 0.3697Ω_{Λ}. When WMAP data are combined with H_{0} and BAO data, the result strongly favors a flat universe: 0.99 < Ω_{tot} < 1.01 (95% CL) (Komatsu et al. 2010). The joints constraints, shown as 68% and 95% blue contours, provide compelling support for basic ΛCDM. 
PNG (37 kb 2048x1508 pixels) PNG (82 kb 4096x3016 pixels) EPS (61 kb) 