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Line Intensity Mapping (LIM) Experiments

Below is a list of proposed or ongoing Line Intensity Mapping (LIM) experiments, with links to their home pages (if available), and a brief description. Experiments whose names are followed by a red asterisk ( * ) observe multiple spectral lines.

Publicly available data from these experiments are currently sparse, given that many of the listed projects are either pathfinders, recently underway, or in planning stages. If an experiment of interest to you is missing from the list, or there is experimental data you would like to provide, please contact us via the suggestion form.

LIM Experiments
Project Name and Website Full name and Reference Lines Science Dates of Operation Technology z-min z-max Frequency Min
(GHz)
Frequency Max
(GHz)
Type
BINGO
BAO from Integrated Neutral Gas Observations [ADS]
21 cm
HI, LSS
Future
Coherent, single dish
0.13
0.48
0.960
1.260
Ground
CHIME
Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment [ADS]
21 cm
HI, LSS
2018-date
Interferometer
0.78
2.55
0.400
0.800
Ground
COMAP-high *
CO Mapping Array Pathfinder-high
[ADS]
CO 2-1
reionization
Future
Coherent
5.8
7.8
26
34
Ground
COMAP-low *
CO Mapping Array Pathfinder-low [ADS]
CO 1-0
star formation
Future
Coherent
2.4
3.4
26
34
Ground
CONCERTO *
CarbON CII line in post-rEionization and ReionizaTiOn epoch
[ADS]
[CII]
reionization
Future
MKID, FTS
4.5
8.5
200
360
Ground
CONCERTO *
CarbON CII line in post-rEionization and ReionizaTiOn epoch
[ADS]
CO J={2,3,4,5}
star formation
Future
MKID, FTS
0.3
2
200
360
Ground
COPSS
CO Power Spectrum Survey
[ADS]
CO 1-0
star formation
2005-2008
Interferometer
2.3
3.3
27
35
Ground
EXCLAIM-CII *
EXperiment for Cryogenic Large-Aperture Intensity Mapping
[CII]
star formation
Future
MKID, FTS
2.2
3.5
420
600
Balloon
EXCLAIM-CO *
EXperiment for Cryogenic Large-Aperture Intensity Mapping
CO
star formation
Future
MKID, FTS
0
0.6
420
600
Balloon
FAST (Tianyan)
Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Telescope
21 cm
HI
2017-date
Prime focus multi-beam receiver
0
0.36
1.05
1.45
Ground
FYST (CCAT-prime Observatory)
Fred Young Submillimeter Telescope
[ADS]
[CII]
reionization
Future
Fabry-Perot, TES
5
9
190
315
Ground
GBT-IM
Green Bank Telescope-Intensity Mapping
[ADS]
21 cm
HI
2009
Prime Focus Receiver
0.58
1
0.700
0.900
Ground
GMRT-EoR
Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope - Epoch of Reionization [ADS]
21 cm
reionization
2007
Interferometer
8.1
9.2
0.139
0.156
Ground
HERA
Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array
[ADS]
21 cm
reionization
Future
Interferometer
4.68
27.4
0.050
0.250
Ground
HETDEX
Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment [ADS]
Lyα
star formation, LSS
2017-date
Dispersive fiber, blind
1.9
3.5
350 nm
550 nm
Ground
HIRAX
Hydrogen Intensity and Real-time Analysis eXperiment
[ADS]
21 cm
HI, LSS
Future
Interferometer
0.78
2.56
0.400
0.800
Ground
LOFAR
The LOw-Frequency ARray
[ADS]
21 cm
reionization
2013-date
Interferometer
5.9
141
0.010
0.240
Ground
LWA
The Long Wavelength Array
[ADS]
21 cm
reionization
2015-date
Interferometer
15.1
141
0.010
0.088
Ground
MeerKAT: MeerKLASS
MeerKAT Large Area Synoptic Survey
[ADS]
21 cm
HI, LSS
Future
Interferometer, single dish
0.0
1.4
0.580
2.50
Ground
mmIME
Millimeter Intensity Mapping Experiment
CO
star formation
Future
Coherent/multiple sites
1
5
30
300
Ground
MWA
The Murchison Widefield Array
[ADS]
21 cm
reionization
2018-date
Interferometer
3.73
16.75
0.080
0.300
Ground
PAPER
Precision Array to Probe the Epoch of Reionization [ADS]
21 cm
reionization
2010-2014
Interferometer
6.1
13.2
0.100
0.200
Ground
Parkes
Parkes Radio Observatory [ADS]
21 cm
HI, LSS
2014
Coherent, multi-receiver
0.06
0.1
1.283
1.347
Ground
SDSS/BOSS
Sloan Digital Sky Survey Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey
[ADS]
Lyα
star formation
2009-2014
Dispersive fiber
2
3.5
356 nm
1040 nm
Ground
SKA-MID
Square Kilometer Array - Mid Frequency
[ADS]
21 cm
HI, LSS
Future
Interferometer, single dish
0
3.1
0.350
1.420
Ground
SPHEREx *
Spectro-Photometer for the History of the Universe, Epoch of Reionization, and Ices Explorer
[ADS]
Hα/β, [OII/III], Lyα
LSS, reionization
Future
Linear variable filter, TMA
0
12
0.75um
5um
Satellite
SuperSpec
SuperSpec [ADS]
[CII]
reionization
Future
MKID on-chip channelizer
4
9
185
315
Ground
Tianlai (pathfinder)
Tianlai Cylinder Array [ADS]
21 cm
HI, LSS
Future
Interferometer
0
1.18
0.650
1.420
Ground
TIM (formerly STARFIRE)
Terahertz Intensity Mapper
[ADS]
[CII]
star formation
Future
MKID grating
0.5
1.5
714
1250
Balloon
TIME-CII *
Tomographic Ionized-Carbon Mapping Experiment [ADS]
[CII]
reionization
Future
Grating + TES
5.3
8.5
183
326
Ground
TIME-CO *
Tomographic Ionized-Carbon Mapping Experiment [ADS]
CO J={2,3,4,5}
star formation
Future
Grating + TES
5.3
8.5
183
326
Ground
YTLA *
Yuan-Tseh Lee Array
CO 2-1
star formation
2017-date
Interferometer
1.2
1.7
86
102
Ground
YTLA *
Yuan-Tseh Lee Array
CO 3-2
star formation
2017-date
Interferometer
2.4
3
86
102
Ground

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