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Line Intensity Mapping (LIM) Experiments

Below is a list of proposed or ongoing Line Intensity Mapping (LIM) experiments, with links to their home pages (if available), and a brief description. Experiments whose names are followed by a red asterisk ( * ) observe multiple spectral lines.

Publicly available data from these experiments are currently sparse, given that many of the listed projects are either pathfinders, recently underway, or in planning stages. If an experiment of interest to you is missing from the list, or there is experimental data you would like to provide, please contact us via the suggestion form.

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LIM Experiments
Project Name and Website Full Name and Reference Line(s) Science Dates of Operation Technology z-min z-max Frequency Min
(GHz)
Frequency Max
(GHz)
Type
BINGO BAO from Integrated Neutral Gas Observations [ADS] 21 cm HI, LSS Future Coherent, single dish 0.13 0.48 0.960 1.260 Ground
CCAT-p Cerro Chajnantor Atacama Telescope-prime
[ADS]
[CII] reionization Future Fabry-Perot, TES 5 9 190 315 Ground
CHIME Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment [ADS] 21 cm HI, LSS 2018-date Interferometer 0.78 2.55 0.400 0.800 Ground
COMAP-high * CO Mapping Array Pathfinder-high
[ADS]
CO 2-1 reionization Future Coherent 5.8 7.8 26 34 Ground
COMAP-low * CO Mapping Array Pathfinder-low [ADS] CO 1-0 star formation Future Coherent 2.4 3.4 26 34 Ground
CONCERTO * CarbON CII line in post-rEionization and ReionizaTiOn epoch
[ADS]
[CII] reionization Future MKID, FTS 4.5 8.5 200 360 Ground
CONCERTO * CarbON CII line in post-rEionization and ReionizaTiOn epoch
[ADS]
CO J={2,3,4,5} star formation Future MKID, FTS 0.3 2 200 360 Ground
COPSS CO Power Spectrum Survey
[ADS]
CO 1-0 star formation 2005-2008 Interferometer 2.3 3.3 27 35 Ground
EXCLAIM-CII * EXperiment for Cryogenic Large-Aperture Intensity Mapping [CII] star formation Future MKID, FTS 2.2 3.5 420 600 Balloon
EXCLAIM-CO * EXperiment for Cryogenic Large-Aperture Intensity Mapping CO star formation Future MKID, FTS 0 0.6 420 600 Balloon
GBT-IM Green Bank Telescope-Intensity Mapping
[ADS]
21 cm HI 2009 Prime Focus Receiver 0.58 1 0.700 0.900 Ground
GMRT-EoR Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope - Epoch of Reionization [ADS] 21 cm reionization 2007 Interferometer 8.1 9.2 0.139 0.156 Ground
HERA Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array
[ADS]
21 cm reionization Future Interferometer 4.68 27.4 0.050 0.250 Ground
HETDEX Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment [ADS] Lyα star formation, LSS 2017-date Dispersive fiber, blind 1.9 3.5 350 nm 550 nm Ground
HIRAX Hydrogen Intensity and Real-time Analysis eXperiment
[ADS]
21 cm HI, LSS Future Interferometer 0.78 2.56 0.400 0.800 Ground
LOFAR The LOw-Frequency ARray
[ADS]
21 cm reionization 2013-date Interferometer 5.9 141 0.010 0.240 Ground
LWA The Long Wavelength Array
[ADS]
21 cm reionization 2015-date Interferometer 15.1 141 0.010 0.088 Ground
MeerKAT: MeerKLASS MeerKAT Large Area Synoptic Survey
[ADS]
21 cm HI, LSS Future Interferometer, single dish 0.0 1.4 0.580 2.50 Ground
mmIME Millimeter Intensity Mapping Experiment CO star formation Future Coherent/multiple sites 1 5 30 300 Ground
MWA The Murchison Widefield Array
[ADS]
21 cm reionization 2018-date Interferometer 3.73 16.75 0.080 0.300 Ground
PAPER Precision Array to Probe the Epoch of Reionization [ADS] 21 cm reionization 2010-2014 Interferometer 6.1 13.2 0.100 0.200 Ground
Parkes Parkes Radio Observatory [ADS] 21 cm HI, LSS 2014 Coherent, multi-receiver 0.06 0.1 1.283 1.347 Ground
SDSS/BOSS Sloan Digital Sky Survey Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey
[ADS]
Lyα star formation 2009-2014 Dispersive fiber 2 3.5 356 nm 1040 nm Ground
SKA-MID Square Kilometer Array - Mid Frequency
[ADS]
21 cm HI, LSS Future Interferometer, single dish 0 3.1 0.350 1.420 Ground
SPHEREx * Spectro-Photometer for the History of the Universe, Epoch of Reionization, and Ices Explorer
[ADS]
Hα/β, [OII/III], Lyα LSS, reionization Future Linear variable filter, TMA 0 12 0.75um 5um Space
SuperSpec SuperSpec [ADS] [CII] reionization Future MKID on-chip channelizer 4 9 185 315 Ground
Tianlai (pathfinder) Tianlai Cylinder Array [ADS] 21 cm HI, LSS Future Interferometer 0 1.18 0.650 1.420 Ground
TIM (formerly STARFIRE) Terahertz Intensity Mapper
[ADS]
[CII] star formation Future MKID grating 0.5 1.5 714 1250 Balloon
TIME-CII * Tomographic Ionized-Carbon Mapping Experiment [ADS] [CII] reionization Future Grating + TES 5.3 8.5 183 326 Ground
TIME-CO * Tomographic Ionized-Carbon Mapping Experiment [ADS] CO J={2,3,4,5} star formation Future Grating + TES 5.3 8.5 183 326 Ground
YTLA * Yuan-Tseh Lee Array CO 2-1 star formation 2017-date Interferometer 1.2 1.7 86 102 Ground
YTLA * Yuan-Tseh Lee Array CO 3-2 star formation 2017-date Interferometer 2.4 3 86 102 Ground
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Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration
HEASARC Director: Dr. Alan P. Smale
LAMBDA Director: Dr. Eric R. Switzer
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