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Foreground Data

Foreground "Science on a Sphere" Images

This page provides access to a number of images that have been formatted to be compatible with "Science On A Sphere", a 3D visualization system developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and implemented at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) (among other places). These images are provided as a courtesy to our users; they do not constitute an endorsement of any product or service.

These are projections of the images available here. The data can be downloaded from here.

Fg H-alpha map H-alpha map. Log scale from .03 to 160 R. "A Full-Sky H-alpha Template for Microwave Foreground Prediction", Finkbeiner, 2003.
Fg H-alpha map Haslam 408 MHz Map. Log scale from 10 to 250 K.
Fg H-alpha map N(HI) Map. Composite neutral hydrogen column density, consisting of the 21 cm survey of Hartmann et al. (1997) supplemented with the lower resolution southern sky map constructed by Dickey & Lockman (1990). Log scale from 1.0e19 to 2.0e22 cm-2.
Fg H-alpha map HEALPIX resampling of Leiden/Argentine/Bonn (LAB) Survey of Galactic HI (from Kalberla et al., 2005). Column density in cm-2. Log scale.
Fg H-alpha map Using a combination of COBE and IRAS data, Finkbeiner, Davis & Schlegel (1999) derived models for thermal dust emission at microwave and submillimeter frequencies. This map is based on their best-fit two-component Model#8. 94GHz Model Dust Map, FDS99. Log scale from 0.4 to 400 uK.
Fg H-alpha map Map of Galactic reddening, E(B-V), in magnitudes, as derived from IRAS and COBE/DIRBE data by Schlegel, Finkbeiner and Davis (1998). Derived E(B-V) Map, SFD98. Log scale from 0.004 to 6.3 mag.
Fg H-alpha map The Dame et al. (2001) composite map of interstellar molecular clouds, as traced by the 115 GHz line of Carbon Monoxide (CO). The CO line intensity has been integrated over all observed velocities. Asinh color scale.

Projection Conventions

The Science on a Sphere (SOS) exhibit was originally designed to show the Earth and various other planets, which are easily represented as spheres we view from the outside. When using the Science on a Sphere to represent the sky, one has to pick some nontrivial visualization conventions. This is because it is much more natural to think of the sky as a sphere that we view from the inside.

One possible approach is to map the sky onto the sphere as directly as possible. When we look in some direction on the sky, we can specify that direction as a vector, and color the sphere at the tip of that vector according to what we see. This means that the sky would look correct when viewed from the center of the sphere. However, when viewed from outside the sphere, all of the features on the sky (constellations, for example) would appear to be backwards---mirror images of how we usually see them.

To rectify this problem, one can do a parity transform of the projection. This can be thought of as mapping each point on the sphere to the point directly opposite (and then doing some rotations so the North Pole is on top again, if desired). This will turn the constellations right side out, for a viewer outside the sphere, although it becomes slightly more difficult to explain how the image on the sphere corresponds to the visible sky.

The Science on a Sphere images here use this convention, where the constellations are right-side-out when seen from the outside. Note that if the other convention is desired, this can be achieved by flipping the images left-to-right in an image editing program.

The Science on a Sphere projection is a simple latitude-longitude grid, also known as an Equatorial Cylindrical Equidistant projection (ECE). See the SOS web site for details and sample images: http://sos.noaa.gov/index.html

The images projected here have the galactic center in the center of the image. The Galactic North pole corresponds to the entire top edge of the image, and the Galactic South pole corresponds to the entire bottom edge of the image. The left and right edges have galactic longitude l=180 degrees. This orientation was chosen because the galactic center is usually the most recognizable, and so it was put in the center of the rectangular image.

Also available:

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Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration
HEASARC Director: Dr. Alan P. Smale
LAMBDA Director: Dr. Eric R. Switzer
NASA Official: Dr. Eric R. Switzer
Web Curator: Mr. Michael R. Greason