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Foreground Data

Foreground Data Images

IRIS 25, 60, and 100 um Composite Map

Maps from the Improved Reprocessing of the IRAS Survey (IRIS) were used to produce this 3-color composite image of the infrared sky. The 25, 60 and 100 um data are represented as blue, green, and red, respectively. Low-level residuals from removal of the zodiacal light show as stripes parallel to the ecliptic.
Detailed Product Description

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iris IRIS 25, 60, and 100 um Composite Map
Logarithmic scale
JPG (16kb - 256x512 pixels)
JPG (50kb - 512x1024 pixels)
JPG (158kb - 1024x2048 pixels)
AKARI 160 Micron Map

The 160 micron map from AKARI data release 1, degraded to 3.4 arcminute HEALPix pixels and then projected to a Mollweide image. Unsampled pixels appear white.
Detailed Product Description

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akari AKARI 160 Micron Map
Log scale from 1.0 to 1000 MJy/sr
PNG (323kb - 512x1024 pixels)
PNG (1.3mb - 1024x2048 pixels)
PNG (4.9mb - 2048x4096 pixels)
Composite All-Sky H-alpha Map

Data from WHAM, VTSS and SHASSA have been combined by D. Finkbeiner (2003) to form an all-sky composite H-alpha map. The H-alpha intensity is provided in units of Rayleighs; no correction has been made for extinction effects.
Detailed Product Description

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halpha Composite H-alpha Map
Log scale from .03 to 160 R
PNG (86kb - 256x512 pixels)
PNG (310kb - 512x1024 pixels)
2014 Reprocessed Haslam 408 MHz Map

The reprocessed Haslam 408 MHz map of Remazeilles et al. (2014). Scan striping was reduced relative to the original Haslam 408 MHz map using a Fourier filtering technique, and strong extragalactic sources were removed using a combination of Gaussian fitting and minimum curvature spline surface inpainting.
Detailed Product Description

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haslam408 2014 Reprocessed Haslam 408 MHz Map
Log scale from 10 to 250 K
PNG (73kb - 256x512 pixels)
PNG (220kb - 512x1024 pixels)
Haslam 408 MHz Map

The Haslam 408 MHz map is derived from 4 separate surveys. Scan striping and contributions from strong point sources have been mitigated (compared to the original map) through the use of filtering in the Fourier domain.
Detailed Product Description

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haslam408 Haslam 408 MHz Map
Log scale from 10 to 250 K
PNG (75kb - 256x512 pixels)
PNG (228kb - 512x1024 pixels)
CHIPASS 1.4 GHz Continuum Map

The CHIPASS 1.4 GHz continuum map, covering the sky south of +25 degrees declination. The map results from a reprocessing of archival data from the HI Parkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS) and the HI Zone of Avoidance (HIZOA) survey by Calabretta, Staveley-Smith, and Barnes (2014).
Detailed Product Description

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chipass CHIPASS 1.4 GHz Continuum Map
Log scale from 3.3 to 7.0 K
PNG (55kb - 256x512 pixels)
PNG (199kb - 512x1024 pixels)
Stockert and Villa-Elisa 1.4 GHz Continuum Map

An all-sky 1420 MHz continuum map formed from surveys of the northern sky with the 25-m Stockert telescope and the southern sky with the 30-m Villa-Elisa telescope.
Detailed Product Description

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stockert Stockert and Villa-Elisa 1.4 GHz Continuum Map
Log scale from 3.1 to 7.0 K
PNG (65 kb - 256x512 pixels)
PNG (219 kb - 512x1024 pixels)
HI4PI HI Column Density Map

Galactic neutral hydrogen column density from the HI4PI survey (HI4PI Collaboration 2016).
Detailed Product Description

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HI4PI N(HI) Map
Log scale from 1.e19 to 2.e22 cm2
PNG (77 kb - 256x512 pixels)
PNG (253 kb - 512x1024 pixels)
PNG (785 kb - 1024x2048 pixels)
Effelsberg-Bonn HI Column Density Map

Galactic neutral hydrogen column density from the Effelsberg-Bonn HI survey (Winkel et al. 2016).
Detailed Product Description

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ebhis N(HI) Map
Log scale from 1.e19 to 2.e22 cm2
PNG (45 kb - 256x512 pixels)
PNG (145 kb - 512x1024 pixels)
PNG (494 kb - 1024x2048 pixels)
HI Column Density Map

Composite neutral hydrogen column density, consisting of the 21 cm survey of Hartmann et al. (1997) supplemented with the lower resolution southern sky map constructed by Dickey & Lockman (1990).
Detailed Product Description

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nh N(HI) Map
Log scale from 1.e19 to 2.e22 cm-2
PNG (72kb - 256x512 pixels)
PNG (217kb - 512x1024 pixels)
Predicted Dust Emission at 94 GHz

Using a combination of COBE and IRAS data, Finkbeiner, Davis & Schlegel (1999) derived models for thermal dust emission at microwave and submillimeter frequencies. This map is based on their best-fit two-component Model#8.
Detailed Product Description

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Dust 94GHz Model Dust Map, FDS99
Log scale from 0.4 to 400 uK
PNG (86kb - 256x512 pixels)
PNG (316kb - 512x1024 pixels)
Galactic Reddening Maps

Maps of Galactic reddening, E(B-V), in magnitudes, as derived from IRAS and COBE/DIRBE data by Schlegel, Finkbeiner and Davis (1998), from Pan-STARRS1 stellar photometry by Schlafly et al. (2014), from Pan-STARRS1 and 2MASS stellar photometry by Green et al. (2015), and from HI4PI data together with the Schlegel, Finkbeiner and Davis reddening map by Lenz et al. (2017).
Detailed Product Descriptions: SFD98, Schlafly et al., Green et al., Lenz et al.

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ebv Derived E(B-V) Map, SFD98
Log scale from 0.004 to 6.3 mag
PNG (86kb - 256x512 pixels)
PNG (319kb - 512x1024 pixels)
ebv Derived E(B-V) Map, Schlafly et al. 2014
Log scale from 0.004 to 6.3 mag
PNG (68kb - 256x512 pixels)
PNG (261kb - 512x1024 pixels)
ebv Derived E(B-V) Map, Green et al. 2015
Log scale from 0.004 to 6.3 mag
PNG (68kb - 256x512 pixels)
PNG (257kb - 512x1024 pixels)
ebv Derived E(B-V) Map, Lenz et al. 2017
Log scale from 0.004 to 6.3 mag
PNG (35kb - 256x512 pixels)
PNG (116kb - 512x1024 pixels)
Velocity Integrated CO Map

The Dame et al. (2001) composite map of interstellar molecular clouds, as traced by the 115 GHz line of Carbon Monoxide (CO). The CO line intensity has been integrated over all observed velocities.
Detailed Product Description

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w_co Map of W(CO)
Log scale from 1.5 to 200 K km s-1
PNG (12kb - 256x512 pixels)
PNG (43kb - 512x1024 pixels)
PNG (150kb - 1024x2048 pixels)
CMB vs. Foreground Anisotropy

This figure, from Bennett et al. 2013 , shows the rms anisotropy as a function of frequency from the CMB (red line) and sources of foreground emission: synchrotron, free-free, spinning dust, and thermal dust emission. The lower and upper curves for each foreground component show the anisotropy for two sky cuts, retaining 77% and 85% of the sky respectively.

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CMB and foreground anisotropy vs. frequency

PNG (86 kb - 2048x1755 pixels)
PNG (240kb - 4096x3511 pixels)
EPS (75kb)
PDF (6.1 mb)
CMB vs. Foreground Anisotropy and Multipole

This figure, from Bennett et al. 2003 , compares the CMB anisotropy to the foreground anisotropy in frequency space and harmonic space. The WMAP frequency bands were chosen to be near the minimum of the galactic emission. (a) Spectra of the CMB anisotropy and the galactic emission as a function of frequency. (b) Foreground angular power spectra for each WMAP band using the Kp2 sky mask. The spectrum at each frequency is derived as a cross-power spectrum between radiometers minus the WMAP-derived CMB model. In K- and Ka-band, where cross-power spectra are not available, the noise bias has been estimated and subtracted. Point source fits for each band are shown in the dashed lines on the right. The spectra are expected to asymptotically join these lines. Note that the diffuse foreground spectra (excluding point sources) go as C_l ~ l^(-2). (c) The contour plot shows the ratio of the CMB anisotropy to the foreground anisotropy (for the Kp2 mask) as a function of frequency and multipole moment. The ratios are expressed in power units.

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CMB and foreground anisotropy vs. frequency and multipole

PNG (570kb - 685x1500 pixels)
JPG (282kb - 685x1500 pixels)
JPG (99kb - 600x1315 pixels)
EPS (449kb)
PDF (273kb)
IRAS/ISSA 25, 60 and 100 um composite Map

The 25,60 and 100 um IRAS/ISSA plates were used to produce this 3-color composite image of the infrared sky. Unobserved portions of the sky are white. Residuals from removal of the zodiacal light show as stripes parallel to the ecliptic.
Detailed Product Description

Please acknowledge LAMBDA when using these images.

IRAS/ISSA 25, 60 and 100 um composite Map
Logarithmic scale
JPG (15kb - 256x512 pixels)
JPG (43kb - 512x1024 pixels)
JPG (128kb - 1024x2048 pixels)
A service of the HEASARC and of the Astrophysics Science Division at NASA/GSFC
Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration
HEASARC Director: Dr. Alan P. Smale
LAMBDA Director: Dr. Eric R. Switzer
NASA Official: Dr. Eric R. Switzer
Web Curator: Mr. Michael R. Greason